Japan Tour 2018 – Day 7

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Japan Tour 2018 – Day 7 – We left our lovely Japanese inn this morning for almost a whole day of traveling on various trains. We left at 9:30 and got to our hotel In Yonezawa around 3:00. This is the garden at the inn. There were beautiful compositions where ever you looked in the gorgeous garden—complete with koi swimming around, of course.

A partial view of our breakfast at the inn this morning. Notice the fire cooking something good.

We rode past many rice fields. If you look closely you can see snow on the mountain. It was cloudy all day so all the scenery had a shadowy feel to it.

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Finally we saw cherry blossoms. They have all been finished wherever we’ve been. We are farther north but I only saw these from the train. I kept looking for them in the villages we rode through. Many houses had something blooming but the cherry blossoms were all gone. We have seen evidence of beautiful cherry trees along rivers in several places along our trip however.

This is my best photo of snow on the mountains. They were quite a distance from the train.

This picture doesn’t belong here but I couldn’t resist it. This was in a tiny shop in the little town where the Japanese inn was. We love soft ice cream and had to stop when we saw the sign outside this mans shop. This was new technology to me.

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 6

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 6 – This is a hot springs area and we have one night in a ryokan which is a Japanese inn. I am sitting on my futon on the floor covered with tatami mats making my daily post. I love the smell of the tatami and think I will sleep well tonight (which is Saturday night). One of our Japanese friends joined us today which was great help getting around.

We took a local bus to Sekikawa a small village in the country side to a see shinafu which is weaving with bark fiber. Bark from tall Japanese linden trees which are cut down are processed by many steps down to fibers about 30 meters long. That’s the length of the bark stripped from the felled tree. This is men’s work we learned from an excellent video all in Japanese (our friend Takako translated details). Then women do all the processing. One of the last steps is to join the lengths of fibers to form yarn for the warp and weft. The join is made with some twisting. It was demonstrated but too much for me to catch. However when looking at the “yarns” you can see the 1/2” or so twisted spots here and there. The photo shows the steps starting with the bark. There were interesting thing on display and many small things to but of the woven cloth and fibers.

This is the road into the village showing mountains and verdant country.

Here is a farmer beginning to plant rice. We finally got a chance to see the tractor up close. We were really in the country. We snatched sandwiches at the train station at Tsuruoka which was good because there were no places to get food let alone coffee. We ate our lunches overlooking the rice farmer while listening to the frogs croaking softly. Peaceful is was.

Here’s the posture for gardening by hand. The woman is spreading out some plants to dry them. One woman spread out hers to dry on the road going into the village—in the left lane of the two lane road. Our bus had to swerve around her. This shows how small the village is.

Along the river in the town (still no place to get a coffee) of Atsumi Onsen where our hotel is there are hot springs around town for soaking your feet. Here is one by the river along side of the sidewalk outside our hotel. A lot of hikers visit the area and come back to soak their tired feet. It was charming and the hot water really felt good. There were towels in a basket to dry our feet.

We had dinner at a little sushi place then headed black to the hotel and a soak in the public bath in the hotel. We put on our cotton kimonos provided and came back after our bath in them, all warm and comfortable.

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 5

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 5
We visited two studios in two separate towns today. Then took another train to our hotel. A busy awesome day. First stop to Akiko Ike in her shop in Niigata. She does a form of stitching she calls chika-chika sashiko. The photo was taken at a solo exhibition.

We had great laughs together with Akiko Ike.

Akiko took a pair of jeans and cut down the sides and inserted a piece of her stitched cloth to make them “fit” her. Notice the suspenders. There was a nice patch on her backside but she didn’t let me photograph that view.

Now we were in the town of Murakami at the Yamagami Dye Studio. The family has lived in this very old house for generations. She is the eldest daughter and is an artist with many dye techniques. She studied at a university in Kyoto and does contemporary as well as traditional designs often with stencils. Her father developed the technique of dyeing with tea. There is a lot of tea grown and processed in the town. Here she is in front of a tea dye pot. She gave me some tea to take home for my dyeing. We met both parents who were still involved with the shop and factory. There were two silk scarves available that were tea dyed so of course we had to have them. Lovely brown and beige.

A tea dyed piece I. The old house.

The dye “factory”. It was full of brushes and stencils and tools.

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 4

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 4 – We headed out this morning to visit Oguniwashi Papermaking Studio in the small village of Oguni. We were told we could visit anytime and to take a bus so we had a leisurely breakfast in our hotel room. At the station we discovered the next bus wasn’t for 2 1/2 hours. We decided to out fox that and to take a local train to a town on our map and then see if we could get a bus from there. This is what we found: a tiny station with no one in sight! There was nothing to do but start walking towards some buildings we saw in the distance. There was a little post office and we asked them to call a taxi. The cost of the ride was $33 but we were sure glad to get it.

This is the Oguniwashi Papermaking Studio which seemed to be run by 3 young people in their 20’s. They make small papers, postcards, note paper etc. I got hand made paper business cards which I’ll dye and print when I get home. I saved one I got years ago dyed with indigo that was distinctive. I can use a rubber stamp for the text. This place is out among lovely rice paddies I. The country!

The kozo plants were soft and wet when the workers scraped them to remove everything but the fibers for making the paper.

The day fibers were boiled here with steam coming out. There was a big stash of wood for the wood stove another part of the preparation process.

Here we saw the familiar process of actually making the paper. The tub has the slurry which might look like wet Kleenex particles thoroughly mixed in water. A tray is lowered into the slurry and jiggled thoroughly to disperse the fibers evenly. Then it is lifted up and the paper in the tray is transferred to a flat surface then sent to be dried on a metal surface with heat below. It takes skill to get the fibers evenly spread out. When you see handmade paper often you can see the fibers and the rough edges that are the edges of each sheet. It looks like back breaking work. Everyone there was young.

We were raced to the train station in a car to get to the train going home. We got there 3 minutes before the train was due. We scrambled to get our tickets from the machine and got on board. It’s a pretty remote place with few trains and even fewer busses. Here the woman is busily cutting out shapes in pieces of their paper to give us as gifts. We gave cards with photos of our work as our gifts while dashing along the rice fields.

Got back to the hotel with nothing else scheduled, ate lunch in our room and went out to find an ATM machine found at 7Eleven stores. I napped and Cathy went walking around the town of Nagaoka which was were our hotel was for three nights. Sent off our suitcases to meet us after two one night hotels coming up. The photo is of our dinner of special soba noodles the area is noted for.

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 3

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 3 – We took a train to Tokamachi this morning with an appointment to see the making of Tsujigahana kimonos. The process is elegant and complicated. There is stencil dyeing, hand painting, and then shibori and probably I’ve missed some more techniques. Our guide took us to every process allowing us to take as many photos as we wanted. It was fabulous. We were taken all around by Suizankoubou, the president of his company. Someday I should put together a slide show.

Mr. Suizankoubou dressed Cathy and me in two glorious kimono in his showroom. I hope you can admire all the details.

An example of one of the techniques. Here the woman is hand painting a flower. I tried to get a closer picture. She put the paint on her brush by touching the tip to a second small brush in order to be able to paint the fine details.

We took a bus in the lovely mountains back to Ojiya to see the washing of the crepe fabric woven with rami threads. First he entered the cloth into tepid water slowly but after that he massaged it like kneading bread for about 5 minutes. He carefully kept watch as the fabric began to shrink and stopped when it looked just right with the right amount of crinkling. See my post yesterday to see what the cloth looks like with it’s crinkles.

Here I am in front of the fabulous kimono seen in yesterday’s post with Fumiko Higuchi. She is the woman who picked us up yesterday and took us around again today which was wonderful.

Here I am wearing that wonderful kimono!! It felt so comfortable. The rami cloth was light and the crepe crinkles were so cool and entirely comfortable. Fumiko gave me a fan so I could feel the breeze of it through the cloth. The climax of a great day.

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 2

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 2
Starting Our Adventure. This is our first day going out on our own. Here we are at the track in Tokyo Station.

We took a bullet train to Nagaoka, a town in the mountains north of Tokyo. About an hour and a half ride into mountains and ski country. We went through some very long tunnels. The rice paddies/fields were flooded but not planted yet. Far behind the farmers around Tokyo.

We dropped off our Cary-on bags and took a local train to Ojiya. We had two places to look for textiles the town specializes in. We had no appointments or any connections.

We were hoping to find crepe cloth woven in Ojiya that looked like this. The crinkle is what is special. Hemp or silk cloth is woven with weft threads that are highly twisted. After weaving the cloth is put in water and “massaged” The cloth then shrinks and crinkles. Traditionally it is then spread out on the snow for bleaching.

We found one place, a shop, with these crepes which are called chijimi. There were lovely kimono fabrics and lots of small things to buy. The fabric is very light weight which is perfect for their hot summers. When we were finished and ordered a taxi a woman came in and at the sales counter asked in English where we were from. Up until then no English had been spoken so it had been frustrating. Well this woman turned out to be wonderful. She took us to her husband’s studio where this fabulous kimono was on display. He is Takashi Higuchi a famous chijimi crepe artist. This kimono is spectacular because all the color changes are due to the threads being dyed before the cloth was woven. The technique is called ikat. She invited us back tomorrow after taking us to the weaving studio. We will see them working the cloth in the water for the shrinking process. So the day turn out to be a magnificent success!

We took a bus back to Nagaoka and checked into our hotel. I was thrilled to see that our big suitcases had arrived from our hotel in Tokyo.

Japan Tour 2018 – Day 1

Day 1/1. Breakfast at our neighborhood Starbucks. I love being in familiar places again. We woke up at 5:00 AM before they were open but made coffee in our room and leisurely repacked and organized. Then we sent our big suitcases off to our hotel for tomorrow.

We headed for our favorite places in this neighborhood for lunch and shopping then tea. This is the subway station.

This is where big time designer shops are located. This interesting building’s shop had some really ugly stuff in the windows.

Mr and Mrs Morita in their antique textile shop. We did some serious shopping there. Can’t wait to unpack the things when I get home. Thank goodness for my large duffle bag I brought along.

The outside of Morita the antique textile shop.

Then tea and parfait at our must-stop tea shop at Aoyama Flower Market.

Japan Tour 2018 – I’ve Arrived

Travel Day/1. The airport in Tokyo was mobbed because it was the end of Golden Week a big holiday week. This was the line waiting for buses into Tokyo. We were thrilled that our friends met us and drove us to our hotel. Than goodness for GPS!

Travel Day 2. Our hotel. We have stayed here many times. Seem so comfortable being in Japan again.

Travel Day/3. We knew we were here when we saw this in our hotel room.

Travel Day/4. Here were the instructions for the toilet. However it flushed automatically. Often I couldn’t find how to flush on previous trips.

Off to Japan Again!

I leave on May 5 and return May 30! The map shows where we’ll be travelling which is all new territory for Cathy Cerny and me. We’ll be more in the countryside (I think) this time. We fly into Tokyo at Narita Airport and soon take off to the north for Nagaoka after one day to visit our most favorite places and regroup. I marked our locations on the map with black spots. You will notice that there will be a lot of area to cover in 3 1/2 weeks. We’ll be staying in 10 hotels including our two times in Tokyo. At the end we have 5 nights in Tokyo for some time to revisit places and a flea market. We’ll be joined by two friends of Cathy for about a week or so and that will help a lot with translating and company. Otherwise it will be just Cathy and me. She did all the research for textile workshops, studios, shops and museums along the way. 

I am almost packed to leave in the morning. We can ship our big suitcases ahead to the next town and they will be waiting at our next hotel! This makes travelling in Japan really easy. We only have our carry-on bags with us on the train or when we have a hotel for just one night. 

I hope you can keep up with us (and that I can, too)!

Some Pieces I Wove Inspired by Other Artists

In my last post I showed some work that has inspired me and this time I’ll show some of my own work that resulted. [click photos to enlarge]

I have used horse hair in quite a few of my pieces, especially in my sheer pieces I called veils. Here are 5 I made to hang separately or as a whole.

Here are two details.

Another detail that shows a cow’s tail I wove in.

These photos are of a table runner in linen where I flattened the warp threads using a rolling pin on a bread board.

The detail gives an idea how silky and shiny it looks in the warp face areas.


Wonderful, Inspiring Weaving

Adela Akers – Red Sticks

This piece is one of two I have by Adela Akers. She weaves narrow strips on her 4-shaft floor loom. Here are two stitched together with black horse hair woven in. Between the folds she has attached little red twigs from a tree in her yard. The red is the natural color, she painted the black color. The piece is 12” wide by 14” tall.  [click images to enlarge]

Adela Akers – Horse Hair and Diagonals

This is another piece woven by Adela. Here, three strips are joined. Again, she has woven in horse hair. It is about 12” x 11”.

Sandra Brownlee – Black and White

This piece is by Sandra Greenlee. I love the simplicity/complexity, borders, everything. She weaves in the black patterns using inlay technique. I read that she opens the shed then decides what black threads she wants to lay in, each weft at a time. Originally I thought she had a jacquard loom—and I was crazy about the fact that she used it so sparingly. How mistaken I was—but I think it would be a good thing to try. Dimensions are 9 1/2” x 12 1/2”. Notice how nicely she finished the top and bottom and designed the selvedges.

Lia Cook – Pressed Work

The last piece is by Lia Cook. I remember fondly when she was weaving these lovely twills in fat rayon butchers string and then pressing them hard to flatten the large wefts. Dimensions are 7” x 8 ½”. I often wondered if it was one of her original samples. It gave me the idea of framing some of the experiments that I wove.

How these have inspired me:
Each artist has inspired my own weaving. I have used horse hair in my sheer silk pieces. I wove rose thorn twigs in other sheer silk pieces. I have always been fascinated by selvedges and little warp face patterns. And I pressed some linens I wove after hearing Lia talk about flattening her pieces using a rolling pin. I have these pieces on my walls in my living room and they continue to bring pleasure and inspiration.

More Indigo Experiments

I have revived my indigo vats and neither of them is dark enough for my taste. This picture is what I gave as gifts to the artisans we visited in Japan last year. The writing is Peggy Osterkamp. Gift wrapping is important there. This is the blue I hoped for with the revived vats now. [click images to enlarge]

This is what I got from my oldest vat after many dips. I was disappointed but maybe I’ll learn to like it. I plan to dip again in my “younger” vat and see if I can achieve the depth of color. 

The technique I learned from a class with Yoshiko Wada with Chris Palmer. After folding the cloth I wrapped it on a pole for dying–called “arashi shibori”.  I love the technique and the mysterious lines it makes.

A Master Weaver, Ethel Stein

Ethel Stein. The Three Graces, 1995. The Art Institute of Chicago. Gift of Ethel Stein. © Ethel Stein – click to enlarge

When I was living in New York in 1983 I began volunteering in the Textile Department at the Cooper Hewitt Museum (now part of the Smithsonian). Milton Sonday was the curator and a wonderful mentor for me. He introduced me to Ethel Stein and I visited her home and studio one day. She taught me the secret for using the warping paddle and was friendly and generous with her time .

Ethel Stein. Red, Yellow, Blue, Green, Orange III, 1995. The Art Institute of Chicago. Gift of Ethel Stein. © Ethel Stein – click to enlarge

She had just finished building her drawloom after figuring out the mechanics to make it work. She began with a countermarch loom and converted it to the drawloom after studying damask fabrics at the Cooper Hewitt with Milton.

thel-Stein-Moon-Wall-2008-The-Art-Institute-of-Chicago-Gift-of-Ethel-Stein-c-Ethel-Stein – click to enlarge

Her woven work is beautiful and especially so given that she didn’t have a computer or computer generated drawloom at that time.

I was thrilled to find this video of her working and think you’ll love it. I hope  to have a video of me working to play at my memorial some day! Other weavers might consider doing the same thing. 

Organizing My Fabrics By Value

I had accumulated a large pile of fabrics I collected for collages and it was growing uncontrollably. I decided to organize them by value. That was too foreboding at first so I sorted them by color (hue) then I took each pile and took out the light ones for the box of light-values.

Next I pulled out the darkest value ones for the dark box. That made it easier to fill the medium box.

The fourth box was for larger pieces of cloth.

What fun. But I sure had a backache after all that working with piles on the floor.

I’m Getting Ready to Dye with Indigo Again

I have my indigo vats from some months ago and they look awful but i was determined to revive them if possible. The vats were covered with mold.After I doctored up the little vat, I think it looks pretty good–the flower looks just fine, but maybe the surface needs to be more coppery–not just along that edge.

Here is my asparagus cooker vat–I love the size for doing the small pieces that I do and the basket inside keeps things from getting lost in the vat and off the bottom, too. My tiny kitchen in my apartment is also my dye kitchen. When I’m not heating dye pots on my two burners, my dish drainer sits on the burners. This is my ironing set up for small pieces. I take my iron down the hall to a regular ironing board when needed. I absolutely love my cordless iron–it has points at both ends. Mine is a Panasonic.

Shopping at Windrush Farm in Petaluma

On that glorious day at the farm where I showed the sheep in my last post, Mimi was asked: “Do you have any wool available?” Here is a woman on her way home with enough wool yarn for several projects–sweaters I think she’ll knit. Different breeds have different types of wool not just different colors. I think I overheard this woman discussing exactly what kind of wool she needed for a special white sweater she was going to knit. 

There was roving ready for spinning or felting in one basket and a container full of balls of yarn from the farm’s sheep and dyed by Mimi. She has a stand during the fall and winter at our Farmers’ Market in Marin County on Sundays. Last week at the market she had balls of roving dyed in a wide range of colors that were being bought up by a woman who does a lot of felting.

Mimi’s assistant is balling up roving (wool from the sheep that has been cleaned and combed to be ready for spinning or felting). The balls are weighed then the price calculated. I was seduced last week at the market to buy a gorgeous ball of roving made of a mixture of grey wool. I plan to use it in felting art pieces.

In the courtyard there were two big tables with sheep pelts. The pelts were set out to dry in the sun. I wondered what the white areas were and was told it was salt to help with the drying. What a wonderful day it was with “thread-head” friends, good food, sunshine, beautiful country and sheep about to lamb! As a weaver I learned a lot, too.

A Wonderful Day at Windrush Farm with the Sheep

Windrush Farm in Petaluma, California specializes in raising sheep for handspinners. They also have spinning classes, summer camps for kids, and “lamb days” every spring so children and parents can mingle with the baby lambs. More information on their website: Windrush Farm

Here they are grazing in the pasture on a simply gorgeous January day.

They came in for dinner and I was able to catch some photos of different breeds. Different types of sheep have differ colors and different types of fleece (wool). In this photo you can see that some have their coats just recently shorn and some haven’t been yet. Mimi said that some refused the shearing the day when the shearer came!

These ewes are about to “lamb” meaning deliver their babies any day now. You can tell because their udders are formed. Some ewes looked pretty fat but the udder is the sure sign. Whether twins or not can’t be predicted.

A couple of lamas are in with the sheep but they don’t mingle much with them. This one wandered in after all the sheep were already deep in their mangers eating. I like the ears and nose!


My New Work

“Shiny” by Peggy Osterkamp – silks dyed with black walnuts [click to enlarge]

I was busy over the holidays making this piece. All the fabrics were dyed with black walnuts I collected in early December. Some I put in iron water for a short time to “sadden” or grey the colors. There were two different fabrics which were shiny  so I could play with the color differences when I turned them 90 degrees. I cut the squares and turned them 90 degrees from each other to get the same effect as changing the nap in corduroy or velvet.  I mounted the pieces on cotton fabric strips and moved them around to make the composition. Then I mounted all the strips on black fabric. Everything was joined with long straight pins. Some time ago I realized the straight pins in my pin cushion were too fat for silk fabrics so I got “Extra-Long Satin Pins”.

Last night when only one light was on in the room, the pins themselves shimmered for further effect.

When I got started I wanted to know what fiber my fabrics were made of. I went to my files to look up “burn test” and there was a page from my own book! I’m still not exactly sure of what I have—it came from a warehouse sale I went to in November. I think they are silk. Here is the chart from my book, “Weaving & Drafting Your Own Cloth“.

An Old New Find For Me

I seem to have found myself finding vintage clothes and loving them and not being able to resist them. These are from known designers from the 60’s and before (I think). Jeanne Marc I remember from the hippie days from North Beach in San Francisco.  The yellow outfit is a copy of Adolpho. Jigsaw from London designed the navy blue and white one.The dress with the bow is by Cynthia Steffe. And the Marimekko dress reminds me of dresses I made and wore. Anyhow the fabrics are delicious and some of the construction is haute couture. What a find for a textile lover.

My “Weaving for Beginners” Now Available in PDF Format

I’m so happy that my beginners book is available in print as usual BUT now, starting today, it’s also available as a downloadable PDF. I’ve been wanting this for months but travel and life got in the way.
We updated the Books/DVD page on my website TODAY.  I, myself, found that sometimes when I wanted to find something instead of leafing through the pages and searching, I turned to my own PDF version and used the search function. I could find it really fast that way. 
Please spread the word about the availability of my book in both formats: PDF as well as Print.
Also, check the Books/DVD page on my website on Black Friday for some Holiday specials.


Weavers in a Small Village Outside Pasighat, India

We visited two weavers in a tiny village after walking across a rickety swinging bridge. It was worth the hardship of crossing over the raging river. The first weaver had just cut off a panel of cloth for a skirt when we came. She got out a completed two-panel skirt to show us how it would look on her body.  Note that the following photos show how the patterns and stripes work on the body. All were woven on backstrap looms.

This skirt also has a traditional color scheme. It was woven in two panels with an almost-invisible seam down the center in the narrow blue stripe. 

This weaver wove the two black and white skirts to wear at festivals. I loved that they were just black and white. If you look closely at what she is weaving you can see the tufts that she is weaving in on her loom.

At first I bought the one with the more elaborate pattern for the back of the skirt because of its complexity. It was woven with three panels–one in the center and the others at the sides. 

Then I realized that I really loved the more simple one–the lines with the tufts and especially the selvedges (edges).  I couldn’t resist having it. I especially like to see that probably this was the first one she made and then used that as the basis for making the second one, adding an elaborate pattern for the back (that would be positioned across her bottom). This one was woven in two panels, joined at the center in the narrow black stripe. That means every single line had to match for the entire length! It is 42 inches wide and 63 inches long. 

This piece is a sample for a skirt woven by a weaver in Bhutan. I liked the complicated way she transitioned between the two main colors.

Bhutan Tour 2017 – Last Days

Shopping. Here is a bit of my stash. 

Thimphu.  A Fantastic place for a great hot chocolate. Like drinking chocolate pudding. The pizza is good –recommended by a reliable source. Try not to miss it when in Thimphu.

Great bookstore in Thimphu. Lots of books in English and books about Bhutan. I’m sorry I didn’t buy a book about the fabulous birds in Bhutan.

Paro. Today was our next to the last day. It’s the place where tourists enter or depart from western Bhutan. It is in this lovely valley. Most of our group is hiking up to the tigers nest tomorrow for the day. Cathy and I are going to hang out in the town and shop and figure out how we will pack our suitcases.

Paro. Our last views of rice fields. We’ve seen rice paddies at all stages on the trip in India and Bhutan. These look like they will be harvested soon. The patterns are so beautiful. There are lots on terraces in the mountains.

The famous Tiger’s Nest monastery where everyone but Cathy and I are spending most of the day hiking up and back. I’m glad not to be going. Hiking all day doesn’t appeal to me even though I know the view at the top will be great. They are leaving the hotel at 7:00. I think we’ll set the alarm for then. We have to leave the hotel at 5:30 am the next day for the airport. The official name of the monastery is Taktsang.

Around the market stalls are the mothers’ children. These posed and mugged for me. First one then the other was ready for the photo. Finally they were in sync. A really nice way to end my reports.

Bhutan Tour 2017 – Day 6

[click the photos to enlarge]

The loom used for weaving wool. A four-shaft floor loom. Very primitive with re-bars on top to hang the pulleys from. Quite a change from back strap looms with fine and dense warp threads. The wool warp and weft threads were not so fine or dense.

A close up of the wool loom that shows how primitive the mechanism is to hold tension on the warp beam. Re-bar again. Making a ratchet is difficult and many other solutions to keeping warp tension exist.

This is how the cloth beam folds the tension.

This is the woven cloth. It’s a plain weave with supplementary wefts.

This guy took my picture. Up close.

This guy held on tight to his toy at the festival.

Bhutan Tour 2017 – Day 5

On our second day in Jakar in the Bumthang district we drove out to the Chumey Valley to see wool weaving which the Bhutanese call yathra. This handicraft shop sells finished goods and does a lot of natural dying of local wool.

Here are dye kettles and the wood fireplaces that would heat the dye baths. It’s interesting how the wood fires we’ve seen work. The end of a log or piece of wood would be lit and as it burned it would be pushed farther into the fire.

The women gathered to pick up the dyed yarn to weave at home.

A women leaving for home with her yarns for weaving.

This woman couldn’t lift her load no matter how she tried.

With help she got her basket up onto her back.

One woman’s load of dyed yarns.